Numerous researchers have been quite interested in altered neuroplasticity phenomenon. Why would the body be unable to restore its proper state after a prolonged abuse? The exact mechanism of the chronically altered neuroplasticity for serotonin – GABA nervous modulation weakening is still undergoing extensive research but has been associated with increased levels of the following enzymes: phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase, dopamine betab-hydroxylase, and tyrosine hydroxylase. Chronically overburdening / overexciting the liver by the sympathetic nervous system and inflammatory agents is now considered to be tightly involved in the subsequent altered neuroplasticity.
Although phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase is found in the adrenal medulla, it’s actually very dependent on liver functioning. It’s responsible for norepinephrine-epinephrine conversion and is highly influenced by cortisol. Increased cortisol, prolactin, and prostaglandin E2 actually lead to increased phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase for excessive norepinephrine-epinephrine conversions which results in excessive sympathetic firing for a vicious cycle.
Dopamine betab-hydroxylase release is stimulated by excessive cortisol, histamine and prostaglandin E2 and supports dopamine-norepinephrine-epinephrine conversions. Excessive epinephrine leads to a vicious cycle through increased sympathetic functioning. Excessive epinephrine is usually broken down in 24-48 hours so it’s important to avoid consecutive sexual activities that support the vicious cycle. A good way to break this particular pathway would be light exercise.
Tyrosine hydroxylaseis is an enzyme that is responsible for the conversion of L-tyrosine to L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (which is a precursor to dopamine) for the excessive and potentially harmful dopamine-norepinephrine-epinephrine conversions. It’s important to note that the long term regulation is mediated by phosphorylation mechanisms. Increased tyrosine transcription can be observed as a result of numerous hormones, drugs (such as cocaine), or second messengers such as cAMP. Excessive sexual activities have been shown to increase its transcription. Smoking is also considered extremely harmful in regards to proper tyrosine hydroxylase activity regulation since nicotine has been shown to increase its activity for up to 48 hours. Tyrosine hydroxylaseis is also an enzyme that can be severely affected by long term neuroplasticity gene alterations through its known regulation by is a Testis-determining factor (TDF), also known as Sex-determining region Y (SRY) protein (it is a is a DNA-binding protein encoded by an SRY gene).